Thousands of years ago when Erciyes Mountain was active, the lava that was cast forth covered an area of approximately 20,000 km. Afterwards, when it became an inactive volcano, this region encountered a tremendous wind and water erosion for hundreds of years. As a result of this erosion, the soil was abraded and dragged away and the rocks which were able to withstand this abrasion were left uncovered. The small rock pieces that are hard and gravelled remained on top of the larger rocks and formed the fairy chimneys of today.
The Christians who took shelter in the Goreme valley because of the Arab pressures gave it the name of Goreme which means "you cannot see here". Later on, this name was Korama and gradually it has come up un til today in the form of Goreme.
Located between Nevsehir and Urgup in the Avcilar Valley that is at a distance of seventeen kilometres from Nevsehir and six kilometres from Urgup, the very different, interesting fairy chimneys and the rock churches are drawing the attention of those who come to the region. St. Paul considered Goreme to be more suitable for the training of missionaries. Formerly Goreme was perhaps more extensive, but today it is consisting of only one valley.